Strictly speaking, not just the Yamnaya genotype, although also Afanasievo, early Corded Ware as well as Poltavka. In different words, what has been referred to in recent scientific literature as Steppe_EMBA:
– by the Eneolthic onwards, human populations on the Pontic-Caspian steppe in Eastern Europe became increasingly mobile (as evidenced by the downsizing of cemeteries, the appearance of Kurgan burial mounds all over which part of the Eurasian steppe, as well as the presence of increasingly sophisticated wagons as well as eventually also chariots as grave goods in burials). – Greater mobility led to completely new contacts as well as more intense contacts between populations once separated by distance, although today practically neighbors, as well as so also to a homogenization of culture across vast areas, as well as the appearance of the Yamnaya horizon across the entire Pontic-Caspian steppe during the Early Bronze Age. – When humans are mobile as well as they share culture as well as lifestyle, they usually mix in a big way, so the Pontic-Caspian steppe was probably one big melting pot by the Eneolithic onwards, as well as especially during the Yamnaya period. – which’s likely which low population densities in Eastern Europe during the Eneolithic ensured the rapid spread as well as rise of admixture by the Caucasus across much of the Pontic-Caspian steppe, which then plateaued at around 50% during the Yamnaya period, when population densities on the steppe may have become high enough to ensure continued gene flow by the Caucasus no longer had much of an impact. – The process which led to the Yamnaya genotype eventually led to its extinction by the Late Bronze Age, due to the large scale spread of Middle Neolithic European farmer ancestry across the entire Pontic-Caspian steppe, probably by its western half, resulting inside formation of the Steppe_MLBA genotype, exemplified by the Sintashta as well as Srubnaya people. – Ancient DNA suggests which Bronze Age steppe groups were highly patrilocal, as well as if so, which’s likely which most of the mixture on the steppe at which time was facilitated via female exogamy (i.e. foreign brides), which would certainly explain the lack of typically Caucasian Y-haplogroups, such as J2, in Bronze Age steppe as well as derived ancient groups sampled to date, such as the Corded Ware people as well as eastern Bell Beakers.
My theory which most of the mixture on the Eneolithic/Bronze Age steppe was facilitated via female exogamy has proved to be a somewhat controversial one inside comments section here. which’s usually vehemently opposed by people who prefer to see the Indo-European homeland inside Caucasus or Iran rather than Eastern Europe, because they realize which a female mediated spread of southern admixture into the steppe lessens the chance which which was accompanied by the introduction of the patriarchal language as well as culture of the early Indo-Europeans. although there’s nothing inside data currently available to suggest which I’m talking nonsense. In fact, the recent Mathieson et al. 2017 preprint on the population history of Southeastern Europe as well as surrounds includes several ancient female samples by the Pontic-Caspian steppe which appear to back up my theory:
– Yamnaya_Ukraine_outlier I1917: by far the most West Asian-shifted Yamnaya individual to date, sitting about half way between the Yamnaya cluster as well as present-day Caucasians in a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of West Eurasian populations, as well as belonging to the typically Near Eastern mtDNA haplogroup R0a1. What which strongly suggests is actually which her father was by the Pontic-Caspian steppe as well as mother probably by the Near East, perhaps by the Caucasus, or at least of fully Near Eastern origin; an obvious smoking gun for what I’ve been arguing. – Ukraine_Neolithic_outlier I1763: by far the most West Asian-shifted Ukraine Neolithic/Eneolithic individual to date, sitting about 1/3 of the way by the Ukraine Mesolithic/Neolithic cluster to present-day Caucasians in a PCA of West Eurasian populations, as well as belonging to the typically Near Eastern mtDNA haplogroup J2b1. What which strongly suggests is actually which her mother was largely of Near Eastern origin, possibly by the southern periphery of the Pontic-Caspian steppe; another smoking gun for what I’ve been arguing. – Yamnaya_Ukraine I2105 & I3141: both by just north of the Sea of Azov, as well as yet both practically indistinguishable by Yamnaya samples by sites several hundred kilometers to the east in Kalmykia as well as Samara. These individuals are potential evidence of female exogamy amongst far flung Yamnaya groups.
Below is actually a PCA by Mathieson et al. 2017 showing where these samples cluster in respect to different ancients, slightly edited by me to highlight the two outliers.
Let me just reiterate which I’m not using these four genomes to claim which I’m right. All I’m saying is actually which they appear to support my arguments. The fact which they’re all in one paper is actually either a pretty amazing coincidence or a sign of things to come. Let’s wait as well as see. Reference… Mathieson et al., The Genomic History Of Southeastern Europe, bioRxiv, Posted May 9, 2017, doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/135616
A plausible design for the formation of the Yamnaya genotype