How to maintain a healthy heart is actually a surprisingly contentious question. Diet along with also exercise are crucial, everyone agrees — nevertheless the ideal specifics along with also the relationships among them remain mysterious. Some experts recommend avoiding dietary fats; others endorse fat along with also low carbohydrates. The impact of high levels of inflammation on heart disease is actually disputed. along with also almost no one can agree about how much (or what type of) exercise is actually optimal. nevertheless a study published last month inside the Lancet points the way to resolving some of these issues by focusing on the Tsimane, a group of subsistence farmers along with also hunters living in Bolivia along a tributary of the Amazon River.
Anthropologists have learned a lot about the lives of the Tsimane since they began studying them 15 years ago. The men typically spend seven hours or so of every day hunting, fishing or poling their canoes to towns to sell along with also procure food. The women devote almost as much time to gathering nuts along with also farming rice, corn along with also plantains. Men along with also women each cover roughly eight miles, or 17,000 steps, each day. Their diet is actually heavy on carbs: 72 percent of their daily calories derive through unprocessed starches, 14 percent through saturated along with also unsaturated fats along with also 14 percent through protein. Many Tsimane experience frequent infections along with also show chronically elevated levels of inflammation.
For the Lancet study, anthropologists teamed with cardiologists who drew blood through 705 Tsimane men along with also women between the ages of 40 along with also 94. The researchers also conducted cardiac scans, enabling them to score the presence of atherosclerosis, a disease characterized by plaque buildup inside a person’s cardiac arteries. A score of 0 meant essentially no detectable disease; 1 to 99, low levels; along with also 400 or greater could be high. Eighty-a few percent of the volunteers scored 0; only 3 percent exceeded 99. Even among those older than 75, only 8 percent exceeded 99. 1 person scored higher than 399. As a group, the Tsimane had scores less than one-fifth those of people inside the United States or Europe. They exhibited less atherosclerosis than even Japanese women, previously thought to contain the earth’s healthiest arteries. In general, the Tsimane developed the first signs of atherosclerosis almost 25 years later than their counterparts inside the industrialized West.
The implications of these findings are complex, says Hillard Kaplan, an anthropologist at the University of brand new Mexico in Albuquerque along with also the study’s co-author. They raise questions about the effect of fats along with also carbohydrates on the heart along with also also about the cardiac impacts of inflammation, which does not contribute noticeably to atherosclerosis among the Tsimane. nevertheless Kaplan says the study indicates how essential the item is actually to be very active physically — the Tsimane were in almost constant motion every day. The future of the Tsimane may tell us more about lifestyles along with also hearts, too. Modernity is actually intruding into their lives. Some today use motorized canoes, putt-putting up the river instead of poling by hand. Kaplan plans to continue monitoring his Tsimane volunteers. In a few years, their hearts may look more like ours.